A language of Botswana

Alternate Names
!Khong, !Xo, !Xo’o~, East Taa, N/amani, Ng|amani, Taa, Tsasi

2,000 in Botswana (2011 C. Naumann). Total users in all countries: 2,500.


Ghanzi district: south; Kgalagadi district: north; Kweneng and Southern districts: west.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b* (Threatened).


Auni (|Auni, |Auo), Kakia (Masarwa), Ki|hazi, Ng|u||en (||U||en, |Nu||en, |U||en, Ng|u|ei, Nu||en), Nusan (Ng|usan, Noosan, Nu-San), Xatia (|Eikusi, |Kusi, Katia, Kattea, Khatia, Vaalpens), !Kwi, ǂHoan (Western ǂHoan).


SVO; prepositions; genitives, adjectives, numerals, relatives after noun heads; question word initial; 2 prefixes, 3 suffixes; word order distinguishes subjects, objects, indirect objects; verb affixes mark number, gender of subject and object, and is obligatory; passives; reduplication on periphrastics for causatives; periphrastic comparatives; CV, CVV, CVCV; tonal.

Language Use

Also use Herero [her], Kgalagadi [xkv], Naro [nhr], Setswana [tsn], |Gwi [gwj]. Second languages used by people older than 10 who have been to school or have lived with speakers of the other languages.

Language Development

Dictionary. Grammar.


Unwritten [Qaax].

Other Comments

Nu||en dialect is extinct. ‡Hua (ǂHoan) [huc] is different from ǂHoan dialect (Western ǂHoan). Traditional religion, Christian.

Also spoken in:

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