A language of Papua New Guinea

Alternate Names
Boana, Kai, Manggang, Ngain, Numangan, Numangang, Sugu

L1 users: 2,300 (2000 census). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,800.


Morobe province: Lae district, north of Nadzab. 10 villages; Lae, Mount Hagen, and Rabaul.

Language Maps
Language Status

4 (Educational).


East Numanggang, West Numanggang.



Language Use

Vigorous. Tok Pisin [tpi] used more in towns. All domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. Some also use Kâte [kmg], especially the older generation. Some also use Tok Pisin [tpi], especially youth. A few also use English [eng]. Also use Nabak [naf], Nakame [nib], Standard German [deu].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 35%–50%. Literacy rate in L2: 35%–50% in Tok Pisin [tpi] or Kâte [kmg]. Taught in primary schools. Literature. NT: 2006.

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Used in village court and believed to have significant influence on proceedings. Tok Pisin [tpi] or other trade language used for insults, at which point an elder will insist that discussion be limited to Numanggang due to its calming and peaceful power. Christian.

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