A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Eastern Pahadi, Gorkhali, Gurkhali, Khaskura, Nepalese, Parbate
नेपाली‎ (Nepālī)

20,980,000 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 12,300,000 in Nepal (2011 census), increasing. 143,000 Achhami, 273,000 Baitadeli, 67,600 Bajhangi, 10,700 Bajureli, 490 Dadeldhuri, 3,100 Dailekhi, 5,930 Darchuleli, and 11,800,000 Nepali (2011 census). L2 users: 8,680,000 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 24,528,840 (as L1: 15,848,840; as L2: 8,680,000).


Widespread: Bagmati, Gandaki, Janakpur, Kosi, Lumbini, Mechi, Narayani, and Sagarmatha zones.

Language Status

1 (National). Statutory national language (1990, Interim Constitution, 2063, Article 5(2)).


Bajureli (Bajura, Bajurali), Soradi, Acchami, Darchuleli (Darchulali, Darjula), Humli, Bheri, Dailekhi, Gandakeli, Purbeli, Dadeldhuri, Baitadeli, Bajhangi. Reportedly similar to Dotyali [dty]. Dialects listed may be quite distinct from standard Nepali. Intelligibility is also low among Baitadeli, Bajhangi, Bajurali (Bajura), Humli, and Acchami. A member of macrolanguage Nepali [nep].


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; 11 noun classes or genders; no articles; content q-word in situ; 1 prefix, up to 5 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking (4 cases); verbal affixation marks person, number and gender of subject; split ergativity; both tense and aspect; passives and voice; causatives; non-tonal; 29 consonant and 11 vowel phonemes.

Language Use

All domains. Used by all. Positive attitudes. Many also use Thulung [tdh], especially lower caste speakers in Mukli VDC. A few also use Kulung [kle], especially families from the tailor caste (Damai) and blacksmith caste (Kami) in Chheskam. Also use Bahing [bhj].

Language Development

Taught at all levels of education. Fully developed. Bible: 1914–2004.


Braille script [Brai]. Devanagari script [Deva], primary usage.

Other Comments

Hindu, Buddhist.

Also spoken in:

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