Naga, Tangshang

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A language of Myanmar

Alternate Names
Haimi, Hawa, Heimi, Kuwa, Pangmi, Pangwa, Rangpan, Rangpang, Tangwa, Tase, Tase Naga
Autonym
Tangshang Naga
Population

L1 users: 60,000 (2010). Total users in all countries: 100,100.

Location

Sagaing region: Khamti district, Khamti, Lahe, Nanyun, and Pangsau townships; Kachin state: Myitkyina district, Shinbwiyan and Tanai townships.

Language Status

5 (Developing).

Dialects

Bote (Bongtai, Butay, Hteinpa, Nokpa, Nukpa), Chamchang (Kimsing), Champhang (Thamphang), Chuyo (Wanggu, Wangoo), Gaha (Halum), Gakat (Wakka, Wanga), Gaqchan (Gashan), Gawkchung (Kochong), Henchin (Sanching, Shangchein), Kaisan (Kaishan, Kyetsan), Khalak (Hkalak), Lakki (Lakai), Lama, Lochang (Lanchein, Langshin), Lumnu, Lungri, Moshang (Mawshang), Miku (Maihku), Mitay (Maitai), Mungre (Mawrang, Morang), Nahen (Nahim, Nahin), Ngaimong (Maimong, Ngaimau), Pingku (Pyengoo), Ranchi (Rangchein), Rasa, Rara, Ranu, Ringkhu (Rangkhu), Sansik (Sheiknyo, Siknyo, Sikpo), Shangti (Sangtai, Shangthi), Shangwan (Changwan, Shangwal, Shawvel), Shecyü (Sangche, Sanke, Shaekjeng, Shaekyeu, Shekyü), Shokra (Sawkrang, Shaukra, Shograng), Toke (Tawkay), Yangno, Chamkok (Tamko, Thamkok), Cholim (Tawlum, Tulim, Tulum), Hachum (Chumnyu, Chumsa, Gachung), Hakhun (Gakhun), Hacheng (Hakyai), Haman (Gaman), Hapaw, Hasik (Awla, Awlay, Laju), Kumka (Kum Ga, Kumga), Rera (Ronrang), Asen (Aasen, Hansin, Raqsa, Yasa), Hakhü (Gakhi, Hachi, Hakhii, Hatse), Hokuq, Jöngi (Dongai, Donghee, Dongi), Kon (Chawang, Kyawan, Yawngkon, Yongkon), Kotlum (Kawlum), Lonyung (Galawn, Galun), Lungkhi (Longkhai), Maitai (Meitei, Mitay), Riha (Lulum). A group of many Naga speech varieties, some of which are separate languages. Intelligibility high between some speech varieties; low between others. Intelligibility between varieties is higher in the north and fairly low in the south. Wide range of lexical similarity within dialects, from 35%–97%.

Typology

SOV; postpositions; genitives, articles before noun heads; numerals, adjectives after head nouns; question word final; word order distinguishes subject, object, and indirect object; person agreement is marked on verbs in many but not all varieties; ergative-absolutive marked, particles indicate case after the noun; passives; tonal.

Language Use

Vigorous in remote areas; lessening in town areas. Shifting to Burmese [mya] in town areas. All domains in remote areas. All ages. Positive attitudes. Also use Burmese [mya].

Language Development
Literature. Radio. Bible: 2015.
Writing

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

The name ‘Tangsa’, which is used in India, refers to only [nst] varieties. ‘Tangshang’, which is the official name in Myanmar, also includes Nocte [njb], Tutsa [tvt], and Wancho [nnp], which are spoken in India. Christian, Buddhist.

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