L1 users: 60,000 (2010). Total users in all countries: 100,100.
Sagaing region: Khamti district, Khamti, Lahe, Nanyun, and Pangsau townships; Kachin state: Myitkyina district, Shinbwiyan and Tanai townships.
Bote (Bongtai, Butay, Hteinpa, Nokpa, Nukpa), Chamchang (Kimsing), Champhang (Thamphang), Chuyo (Wanggu, Wangoo), Gaha (Halum), Gakat (Wakka, Wanga), Gaqchan (Gashan), Gawkchung (Kochong), Henchin (Sanching, Shangchein), Kaisan (Kaishan, Kyetsan), Khalak (Hkalak), Lakki (Lakai), Lama, Lochang (Lanchein, Langshin), Lumnu, Lungri, Moshang (Mawshang), Miku (Maihku), Mitay (Maitai), Mungre (Mawrang, Morang), Nahen (Nahim, Nahin), Ngaimong (Maimong, Ngaimau), Pingku (Pyengoo), Ranchi (Rangchein), Rasa, Rara, Ranu, Ringkhu (Rangkhu), Sansik (Sheiknyo, Siknyo, Sikpo), Shangti (Sangtai, Shangthi), Shangwan (Changwan, Shangwal, Shawvel), Shecyü (Sangche, Sanke, Shaekjeng, Shaekyeu, Shekyü), Shokra (Sawkrang, Shaukra, Shograng), Toke (Tawkay), Yangno, Chamkok (Tamko, Thamkok), Cholim (Tawlum, Tulim, Tulum), Hachum (Chumnyu, Chumsa, Gachung), Hakhun (Gakhun), Hacheng (Hakyai), Haman (Gaman), Hapaw, Hasik (Awla, Awlay, Laju), Kumka (Kum Ga, Kumga), Rera (Ronrang), Asen (Aasen, Hansin, Raqsa, Yasa), Hakhü (Gakhi, Hachi, Hakhii, Hatse), Hokuq, Jöngi (Dongai, Donghee, Dongi), Kon (Chawang, Kyawan, Yawngkon, Yongkon), Kotlum (Kawlum), Lonyung (Galawn, Galun), Lungkhi (Longkhai), Maitai (Meitei, Mitay), Riha (Lulum). A group of many Naga speech varieties, some of which are separate languages. Intelligibility high between some speech varieties; low between others. Intelligibility between varieties is higher in the north and fairly low in the south. Wide range of lexical similarity within dialects, from 35%–97%.
SOV; postpositions; genitives, articles before noun heads; numerals, adjectives after head nouns; question word final; word order distinguishes subject, object, and indirect object; person agreement is marked on verbs in many but not all varieties; ergative-absolutive marked, particles indicate case after the noun; passives; tonal.
Latin script [Latn].