Tohono O’odham


A language of United States

Alternate Names
Nebome, Nevome, O’odham, O’othham, Papago-Pima, Upper Piman
Tohono O’otham

L1 users: 14,000 (Golla 2007). 8,190 Pima (2010 census). 180 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 33,000 (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004). Including 20,000 Papago, 13,000 Pima (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004). Total users in all countries: 14,160.


Arizona: south central. 60 villages on 7 reservations.

Language Status

6b (Threatened).


Tohono O’odam (“Papago” (pej.)), Akimel O’odham (Pima).

Language Use

Vigorous in the west and south. All ages.

Language Development
Taught at the University of Arizona (Golla 2007). From primary school on, schools of the Tohono O’odham Nation teach the language. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1975.

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Different from Pima Bajo [pia] of Mexico.

Also spoken in:

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