Tohono O’odham


A language of United States

Alternate Names
Nebome, Nevome, O’odham, O’othham, Papago-Pima, Upper Piman
Tohono O’otham

14,000 in United States (Golla 2007). 180 monolinguals (1990 census). Ethnic population: 33,000 (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004). Including 20,000 Papago, 13,000 Pima (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004). Total users in all countries: 14,160.


Arizona: south central. 60 villages on 7 reservations.

Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Ak Chin Indian Community of the Maricopa (Ak Chin) Indian Reservation, Gila River Indian Community of the Gila River Indian Reservation, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community of the Salt River Reservation, Tohono O’odham Nation of Arizona.


Tohono O’odam (“Papago” (pej.)), Akimel O’odham (Pima).

Language Use

Vigorous in the west and south. Some young people, all adults.

Language Development

Taught at the University of Arizona (Golla 2007). From primary school on, schools of the Tohono O’odham Nation teach the language. Dictionary. Grammar. NT: 1975.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Different from Pima Bajo [pia] of Mexico.

Also spoken in:

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