L1 users: 28,200,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 29,258,970.
Chhandigarh state; Haryana state: Ambala and Pauchkula districts; Himachal Pradesh state: Kangra and Una districts; Jammu and Kashmir state: Jambu, Kathua, and Samba Jambu districts; Punjab state: Amritsar and Gurdaspur districts (Majhi); Rajasthan state: north Ganganagar district.
2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Punjab, West Bengal states; union territories Delhi, Chandigarh (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII).
Punjabi Proper (Panjabi Proper), Majhi, Doab, Bhatyiana (Bhatneri, Bhatti), Powadhi (Puadi), Malwa, Bathi. Western Punjabi [pnb] is distinct from Eastern Punjabi, although there is a chain of dialects to Western Hindi (Urdu) [urd]. Bhatyiana dialect considered a mixture of Punjabi and Marwari [mve]. Majhi considered the purest Punjabi form (Grierson and Konow 1903–1928).
SOV; postpositions; gender (masculine/feminine); no articles; case-marking (7 cases); verb affixes mark person, number, gender of subject; passives; tense and aspect; 15 consonant and 24 vowel phonemes; tonal (3 tones: high, mid, low).
Associated with Sikhs. Different from Majhi [mjz] in India and Nepal. Sikh, Muslim.