Punjabi, Eastern


A language of India

Alternate Names
Eastern Panjabi, Gurmukhi, Gurumukhi, Punjabi
ਪੰਜਾਬੀ‎ (Panjabi), ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ‎ (Panjabi bhasa)

31,100,000 in India (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 32,601,140 (as L1: 32,600,670; as L2: 470).


Chandigarh state; Haryana state: Ambala and Pauchkula districts; Himachal Pradesh state: Kangra and Una districts; Jammu and Kashmir state: Jambu, Kathua, and Samba Jambu districts; Punjab state: Amritsar and Gurdaspur districts; Rajasthan state: north Ganganagar district.

Language Maps
Language Status

2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Punjab, West Bengal states; union territories Delhi, Chandigarh (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII).


Punjabi Proper (Panjabi Proper), Majhi, Doabi, Bhatyiana (Bhatiani, Bhatneri, Bhatti), Powadhi (Puadhi, Puadi), Malwai (Malwa), Bathi. Western Punjabi [pnb] is distinct from Eastern Punjabi, although there is a chain of dialects to Western Hindi (Urdu) [urd]. Bhatyiana dialect considered a mixture of Punjabi and Marwari [mve]. Majhi considered the purest Punjabi form (Grierson and Konow 1903–1928).


SOV; postpositions; gender (masculine/feminine); no articles; case-marking (7 cases); verb affixes mark person, number, gender of subject; passives; tense and aspect; 15 consonant and 24 vowel phonemes; tonal (3 tones: high, mid, low).

Language Use

Used as L2 by Bauria [bge], Bhattiyali [bht], Bilaspuri [kfs], Chambeali [cdh], Churahi [cdj], Dogri [dgo], Kangri [xnr], Mandeali [mjl], Sansi [ssi].

Language Development

Taught in primary and secondary schools. Literature. Radio. Grammar. Bible: 1959–2017.


Arabic script, Naskh variant [Arab]. Gurmukhi script [Guru], primary usage. Khojki script [Khoj].

Other Comments

Associated with Sikhs. Different from Majhi [mjz] in India and Nepal. Sikh, Muslim.

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