A language of United States

Alternate Names
Coso, Koso, Koso Shoshone, Panamint, Panamint Shoshone, Tumpisa Shoshone, Tümpisa Panamint Shoshone, Tümpisa Shoshone, Tümpisa Shoshoni

20 (Golla 2007). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100 (1998 J. McLaughlin).


California: Little Lake area in south Eureka Valley; Owens Lake, Coso Range, south Owens Valley area; Nevada: Amargosa Desert, Argus range, Beatty area, north and central Death Valley; Funeral Range on California-Nevada border; Grapevine mountains; Inyo mountains east slopes, northern Panamint valley and mountains; Saline valley.

Language Status

8a (Moribund). Language of registered tribe: Big Pine Band Paiute Tribe of the Owens Valley, Bishop Paiute Tribe, Death Valley Timbi-Sha Shoshone Tribe, Fort Independence Indian Community of Paiute Indians of the Fort Independence Reservation, Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone Tribe.


None known. Reportedly similar to Shoshoni [shh] and Comanche [com] but not inherently intelligible with them.

Language Use

Only used among the oldest with each other. They lament the shift to English [eng] by youth. Younger speakers attempting to revive interest in Timbisha among the younger generations, but with little success (Golla 2007). Older adults only. All also use English [eng].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L2: 90%. Dictionary. Grammar.

Page Views Left: