German, Pennsylvania


A language of United States

Alternate Names
Pennsylvania Deitsh, Pennsylvania Dutch, Pennsylvanish

118,000 in United States (2010 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 200,000 (Kloss and McConnell 1981). Total users in all countries: 133,000.


Scattered; Florida; Indiana; Iowa; Kansas; Missouri; Ohio; Oklahoma; Pennsylvania; Virginia; West Virginia; Wisconsin; new communities in other states.

Language Status

5 (Developing).


Amish Pennsylvania German (Plain Pennsylvania German), Non-Amish Pennsylvania German (Non-Plain Pennsylvania German, Pensylvanisch Deitsch). Blending of several German dialects, primarily Rhenish Palatinate (Pfalzer) German, with syntactic elements of High German and English. Mostly incomprehensible to those from the Palatinate (Kloss 1978).

Language Use

Plain community not shifting to English [eng], but maintains stable bilingualism (1987 M. Louden). All domains. Mainly older adults. Also use English [eng].

Language Development
Bible: 2013.

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Separate orthographies for Pennsylvania and Ohio dialects. Christian.

Also spoken in:

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