L1 users: 6,000. Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 24,500. Includes 16,500 Jishishan and 8000 Tongren.
Gansu province: Linxia Hui autonomous prefecture, Jishishan Bao’an-Dongxiang-Sala autonomous county; Qinghai province: Tongren county.
7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Bonan. Speakers of the Jishishan dialect moved from Qinghai Province to Gansu, 1858–1863.
Jishishan (Dahejia, Dajiahe, Dakheczjha), Tongren (Tungyen). Jishishan subdialects are Ganhetan and Dadun; Tongren subdialects are Nianduhu, Guomari, Gajiuri, and Lower Bao’an. Jishishan dialect has been influenced by Mandarin Chinese [cmn], Tongren by Tibetan [bod]. There are phonological and grammatical differences between them, and inherent intelligibility may be low.
SOV; stress on final syllable; modifiers precede noun heads; Tongren dialect allows onset consonant clusters which resemble Tibetan; Jishishan dialect has Chinese-type syllable structure.
Muslim, Buddhist, traditional religion.