A language of Pakistan

Alternate Names
Biyori, Dangarikwar, Palola, Phalulo, Phalura

10,000 (Liljegren 2008). Population of Ashret and Biori Valleys is almost completely monolingual (Liljegren 2008).


Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Chitral district, Ashret and Biori, 12 villages on lower east Chitral river; some in main valley, Kalkatak, and Shishi Koh valley, Purigal; some in Dir Kohistan. Ashret valley (Ashreti dialect); Biori valley, Kalkatak, and Purigal (northern Palula dialect).

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Language Status

6a (Vigorous).


Ashreti, Northern Palula. No, or limited, intelligibility of Kalkoti [xka] and Savi [sdg]. Lexical similarity: 92% with Ashreti and Northern Palula dialects, 56%–58% with Savi [sdg] in Afghanistan, 38%–42% with Kohistani Shina [plk]. Palula, Kalkoti [xka] (spoken in Dir Kohistan) and Savi [sdg] (spoken in Afghanistan) form a cluster of closely related varieties within the Shina group (Liljegren 2008).

Language Use

Vigorous within Ashret and Biori valleys. Reluctant to use Palula when speakers of other languages are present. Home, community. Used by all. Positive attitudes. Also use Khowar [khw], Northern Pashto [pbu].

Language Development

2-year mother-tongue multilingual education program (bridging from Palula to Urdu) now tested in two locations (2012). Taught in primary schools, but limited. Literature. Dictionary.


Arabic script, Naskh variant [Arab], in development. Arabic script, Nastaliq variant [Aran], primary usage.

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