Pukapuka

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A language of Cook Islands

Alternate Names
Bukabukan, Pukapukan, Te Leo Wale
Population

700 in Cook Islands (2011 census), decreasing. 451 Pukapuka, 73 Nassau Island (Census), plus approximately 200 L1 speakers on Rarotonga (Pue village), less a few non-Pukapukan spouses most of whom speak Pukapuka as L2 (2015 M. Salisbury). Ethnic population: 700 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 3,100.

Location

Nassau, Pukapuka, and Rarotonga.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2003, Te Reo Maori Act, Articles 2(b) and 4), Te Reo Maori is deemed to include Pukapukan as spoken or written in Pukapuka.

Dialects

None known. Not intelligible with Rarotongan [rar] or other Cook Islands languages. Related to Samoan [smo].

Typology

VSO, VOS.

Language Use

While it is spoken by almost everyone on the island including children and non-native spouses, it has few written resources and is in a diglossic relationship with Cook Islands Maori, the national language. Positive attitudes. All also use Cook Islands Maori [rar]. Most also use English [eng].

Writing

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Christian.