L1 users: 500 (Holm 1989). Ethnic population: 3,500.
Atlántico department: border area and 2 neighborhoods in Barranquilla; Bolivar department: San Basilio de Palenque village southeast of Cartagena.
None known. Linguistic influences from Koongo [kng] in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Hancock 1987).
10% of those under 25 speak it (1998 A. Schwegler). Most speakers are older, but younger people are increasingly learning it as L2 and marker of identity (2011 A. Schwegler). Positive attitudes. Also use Spanish [spa].
People are culturally distinct from nearby Spanish [spa] speakers. Palenque is Spanish for a fortified village of runaway slaves.