Punjabi, Western

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A language of Pakistan

Alternate Names
Lahanda, Lahnda, Lahndi, Panjabi, Panjabi Proper, Punjabi, Punjapi, Shahmukhi
Population

88,500,000 in Pakistan (2014 World Factbook). Total users in all countries: 90,512,900.

Location

Punjab province: Lahore, Kasur, Shekhupura, Nankana, Gujranwala, Gujrat, Sialkot, and Narowal districts.

Language Status

5 (Developing).

Dialects

Bathi, Bhatyiana (Bhatneri, Bhatti), Doab, Majhi, Malwa, Powadhi, Lahori, Punjabi Proper. A continuum of related varieties between Eastern Punjabi [pan] in India and Western Punjabi, and ‘Lahnda’. Lahnda (originally called Western Panjabi by Grierson) is a label for the dialect continuum between Hindko [hno] [hnd], Pahari-Potwari [phr], and Saraiki [skr]; Lahnda varieties are 70%–85% lexically similar to Punjabi [pan]. Lexical similarity: 70%–85% with Punjabi [pan]. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah].

Typology

SOV; postpositions; gender (masculine/feminine); no articles; case-marking (7 cases); verb affixes mark person, number, gender of subject; passives; tense and aspect; 15 consonant and 24 vowel phonemes; tonal (3 tones: high, mid, low).

Language Use

Educated younger generations living in cities opt to use Urdu [urd] and English [eng], and parents also encourage them to use Urdu or English even at home. Home, community, religious settings. All ages. Positive attitudes. Also use Saraiki [skr]. Used as L2 by Aer [aeq], Northern Hindko [hno], Sansi [ssi], Southern Hindko [hnd].

Language Development
Newspapers. Radio programs. Films. TV. Videos. Grammar. NT: 1819–2000.
Writing

Arabic script, Naskh variant [Arab], Naskh style. Arabic script, Nastaliq variant [Aran], primary usage. Khojki script [Khoj]. Lahnda (Landa) script [Qaaj], no longer in use.

Other Comments

Muslim, Christian.

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