A language of Nepal


Alternate Names
Puma Kala, Puma La, Puma Pima
Language Maps

6,690 (2011 census), decreasing.


Sagarmatha Zone, south Khotang district, Diplung, Chisapani, Devisthan, Mauwabote, and Pauwasera VDCs; Udayapur district, Beltar, and Saunechour VDCs; Ruwa Khola valley to Buwa Khola across the Dudh Koshi southward.

Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai.


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; content q-word in situ; clause constituents indicated by both case-marking and word order; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity; tense and aspect; no passive or voice, but antipassive is a remarkable feature; nontonal.

Language Use

Home, religion, work; mixed use: Friends. Older adults and elderly. Some use among children, adolescents, and young adults. Positive attitudes. Also use Bantawa [bap], Chamling [rab], Nepali [npi].

Language Development
Poetry. Magazines. Films. Videos. Dictionary. Agency: Kirat Puma Rai Tupkhabangkhala.

Devanagari script [Deva].

Other Comments

Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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