A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Puma Kala, Puma La, Puma Pima

7,010, all users. L1 users: 6,690 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: 320 (2011 census).


Sagarmatha zone: south Khotang district, Chisapani, Devisthan, Diplung, Mauwabote, and Pauwasera VDCs; Udayapur district, Beltar, and Saunechour VDCs; Ruwa Khola valley to Buwa Khola across the Dudh Koshi southward.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai.


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; content q-word in situ; clause constituents indicated by both case-marking and word order; verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity; tense and aspect; no passive or voice, but antipassive is a remarkable feature; nontonal.

Language Use

Home, religion, work; mixed use: Friends. Some young people, all adults. Positive attitudes, especially among younger generation. Also use Bantawa [bap], Chamling [rab], Nepali [npi].

Language Development

Literature. Periodicals. Videos. Dictionary. Texts. Agency: Kirat Puma Rai Tupkhabangkhala.


Devanagari script [Deva].

Other Comments

Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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