A language of Myanmar

Alternate Names
Ch’opa, Chiutse, Ganung-Rawang, Kiutze, Nung Rawang, Qiuze, “Hkanung” (pej.)
Nung, Rawang

62,000 in Myanmar (2000). Total users in all countries: 63,000.


Kachin state: Putao district, Kawnglangphu, Machanbaw, Naungmaw, Pannandin, and Putao townships.

Language Status

3 (Wider communication). Matwang dialect is L2 or church language used by other dialect speakers.


Kyaikhu (Dangraq-Mashang, Northern Lungmi), Matwang, Daru-Jerwang, Khrangkhu-Thininglong (Southern Lungmi), Tangsar West (Langdaqgong, Renyinchi), Thaluq, Tangsar East (Changgong). Most reportedly understand Matwang, a central, written dialect. Part of a chain of related varieties with the Drung [duu] people of Nu nationality in China. Dialects near Tibet border more divergent. Lungmi varieties of Mashang and Dangraq are especially divergent. Rawang speakers from the Kunglang variety of Daru live in Arunachal Pradesh, India. Some Rawang dialects, especially Kyaikhu Lungmi and Changgong Tangsar, have less intelligibility with the standard written dialect of Matwang. Anong (Khingpang) [nun] and Drung (Thrung) [duu] are related to Rawang and are sometimes included as Rawang varieties (Morse 1989). Lexical similarity: 82%–99% among Matwang-related dialects. Lexical similarity between Matwan and the following varieties or languages: 74% with Drung [duu], 79%–80% with Anong [nun], 81%–87% with Renyinchi (Langdaqgong Tangsar), 77% with Changgong Tangsar, 74%–85% with Lungmi, 74%–80% with Daru-Jerwang.



Language Use

Vigorous. All domains. Rawang literature used mainly in church. Used by all. Positive attitudes. Some also use Burmese [mya], especially young people. Also use Jingpho [kac], Lisu [lis]. Used as L2 by Anong [nun], Drung [duu], Lisu [lis].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 30%–60%. Literacy rate in L2: 75%–100%. Older generation is more literate in Rawang; younger generation literacy rate in Rawang is declining. Newspapers. Periodicals. Dictionary. Grammar. Texts. Bible: 1986. Agency: Rawang Language and Culture Committee.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Traditionally, Rawang is made up of 5 major clan divisions (plus subclans): Lungmi, Matwang, Daru-Jerwang, Tangsar, and Anong [nun] (Morse 1989). Christian.

Also spoken in:

Expand All
Collapse All
Page Views Left: