A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Ban Raji, Janggali, Phaan Bhaasaa, Phaan Boli, Rajibar, Rawati, Rjya

3,814, all users. L1 users: 3,760 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: 54 (2011 census).


Bheri zone: Banke, Bardiya, and Surkhet districts; Seti zone: Kailali district, lower Karnali river area; possibly Mahakali zone: Kanchanpur district.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rajhi.


Barh Bandale, Naukule, Purbiya. Reportedly similar to Rawat [jnl]. Speakers of Barh Bandale and Purbiya have difficulty in understanding the Naukule variety. Lexical similarity: From 84% and 86% between the three varieties; 55% with Raute [rau].

Language Use

In one village in Kailali District, Khailad VDC, speakers under 6 years of age and over 60 years old are monolingual. Religion; mixed use: Home, friends, work. Some young people, all adults. Negative attitudes. Also use Hindi [hin], Nepali [npi].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L2: 22% (1991 census). Literacy in Nepali [npi] is increasing since parents have started sending their children to school. Literature. Dictionary. Texts. Agency: Raji Shalma Samaj.


Devanagari script [Deva].

Other Comments

The Raji were a nomadic group, but now settled. Sharma (1990) identifies Raji in India (perhaps Bodo Gadaba [gbj]) as a Munda language with borrowings from Tibeto-Burman and Indo-Aryan. Barh Bandale dialect is the most prestigious. May be the same as Rawat [jnl] in India. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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