Romani, Vlax


A language of Romania

Alternate Names
Danubian, Gypsy, Roma, Romanese, Tsigene, Vlax Romany

246,000 (2014 UNSD). 6,000,000 to 11,000,000 Roma worldwide (1987 I. Hancock). Total users in all countries: 538,480.


Largest concentration in Dolj and Caras-Severin counties; scattered elsewhere, in the south and southeast.

Language Status

6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others).


Sedentar Romani, Kalderash (Coppersmith, Kalderari, Kelderash, Kelderashícko), Ukraine-Moldavia, Eastern Vlax Romani (Bisa), Churari (Churarícko, Sievemakers), Lovari (Lovarícko), Machvano (Machvanmcko), Serbo-Bosnian, Zagundzi, Sedentary Bulgarian, Ghagar, Gabor, Vallachian. Kalderash and Churari are occupational ethnonyms; Machvano is a geographical one. Other names are ‘Argintari’, silversmith and ‘Lingurari’, spoonmakers. Machvano and Serbian Kalderash have south Slavic superstratum; Lovari influenced by Hungarian [hun]. All 20 or more Vlax dialects are inherently intelligible; differences are mainly lexical and sociolinguistic (I. Hancock). A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom].

Language Use

Some children are not learning the language.

Language Development
Grammar. NT: 1984–1995.

Cyrillic script [Cyrl], used for Kalderash dialect. Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments


Also spoken in:

Expand All Collapse All
Page Views Left: