Romani, Vlax

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A language of Romania

Alternate Names
Danubian, Gypsy, Roma, Romanese, Tsigene, Vlax Romany
Autonym
Romani
Population

246,000 (2014 UNSD). 6,000,000 to 11,000,000 Roma worldwide (1987 I. Hancock). Total users in all countries: 538,480.

Location

Largest concentration in Dolj and Caras-Severin counties; scattered elsewhere, in the south and southeast.

Language Status

6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others).

Dialects

Sedentar Romani, Kalderash (Coppersmith, Kalderari, Kelderash, Kelderashícko), Ukraine-Moldavia, Eastern Vlax Romani (Bisa), Churari (Churarícko, Sievemakers), Lovari (Lovarícko), Machvano (Machvanmcko), Serbo-Bosnian, Zagundzi, Sedentary Bulgarian, Ghagar, Gabor, Vallachian. Kalderash and Churari are occupational ethnonyms; Machvano is a geographical one. Other names are ‘Argintari’, silversmith and ‘Lingurari’, spoonmakers. Machvano and Serbian Kalderash have south Slavic superstratum; Lovari influenced by Hungarian [hun]. All 20 or more Vlax dialects are inherently intelligible; differences are mainly lexical and sociolinguistic (I. Hancock). A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom].

Language Use

Some children are not learning the language.

Language Development
Grammar. NT: 1984–1995.
Writing

Cyrillic script [Cyrl], used for Kalderash dialect. Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Christian.

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