A language of Indonesia

Alternate Names
East Toraja, Luwu’, Luwu-Rongkong, Rongkong, Rongkong-Luwu, Tae’ Tae’, Taeq, Toraja, Toraja Timur, Toware, “Toala’” (pej.)

340,000 (2000 census), increasing.


South Sulawesi province: Luwu and North Luwu regencies; northwest coast; Bone bay; Bastem sub-district, Rongkong river valley. East Luwu regency, Nuha sub-district (Rongkong dialect).

Language Maps
Language Status

5* (Developing).


Rongkong, Northeast Luwu (Bone-Bone, Masamba), South Luwu, Bua. Dialect chain throughout Tae’ area east into Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]. Lexical similarity: 82% or greater among dialects, 82% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda].

Language Use

Vigorous. Written use for ancestral stories. All domains. Positive attitudes. Also use Indonesian [ind]. Used as L2 by Lemolang [ley].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 20%–30%. About 10%–20% write.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Different from Toraja-Sa’dan (Tae’) [sda]. Different from the Bugis-Luwu dialect of Bugis [bug]. Different from the Bugis-speaking “Toala” identified by P. and F. Sarasin (1903). “Toala’” is a pejorative Bugis exonym meaning forest people. Rongkong dialect has Seko Lemo, Rongkong Atas (Rongkong-Kanandede) and Rongkong Bawah (Sabbang) subdialects. Bua dialect has Bajo (Palili’) and Bastem (“Toala’”) subdialects. Muslim.

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