14,100 in India (2001 census). L2 users: 194,000 in India. Total users in all countries: 209,770 (as L1: 14,100; as L2: 195,670).
Uttar Pradesh, Allahabad, Jaunpur, Pratagarh, and Kaushambi districts; Delhi and other urban areas; revival efforts in villages.
4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII).
SOV; both prepositions and postpositions; noun head final; 3 genders; content q-word in situ; up to 3 prefixes, up to 5 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; verbal affixation marks person, number and genders of subject and object; dual number; non-ergative; tense and aspect; passives and voice; comparatives; non-tonal; 34 consonant, 8 vowels, 2 diphthongs.
Classical language of learning and liturgical language.