A language of India

संस्कृतम्‎ (Saṃskṛtam)

5,004,800 in India, all users. L1 users: 24,800 in India (2011 census). L2 users: 4,980,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 5,007,800 (as L1: 24,800; as L2: 4,983,000).


Uttar Pradesh state: Allahabad, Jaunpur, Kaushambi, and Pratagarh districts; Delhi and other urban areas; revival efforts in villages.

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Language Status

4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII).


SOV; both prepositions and postpositions; noun head final; 3 genders; content q-word in situ; up to 3 prefixes, up to 5 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; verbal affixation marks person, number and genders of subject and object; dual number; non-ergative; tense and aspect; passives and voice; comparatives; non-tonal; 34 consonant, 8 vowels, 2 diphthongs.

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 60%–100%. Literacy rate in L2: 15%–25%. Literature. Newspapers. Periodicals. Radio. Dictionary. Grammar. Texts. Bible: 1822.


Devanagari script [Deva]. Myanmar (Burmese) script [Mymr]. Newa script [Newa]. Sharada script [Shrd]. Sinhala script [Sinh].

Other Comments

Classical language of learning and liturgical language.

Also spoken in:

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