L1 users: 5,940,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 6,220,280 (as L1: 6,219,300; as L2: 980).
Bihar state: Bhagalpur and Munger districts; Jharkhand state: Hazaribagh and Manbhum districts; Odisha state: Balasore district; West Bengal state: Bankura and Birbhum districts; Assam, Mizoram, and Tripura states.
4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Jharkhand State (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII), amended 2003.
SOV; postpositions; noun head final; no noun classes or genders; content q-word in situ; 1 prefix, up to 3 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; verbal affixation marks person and number; non-ergative; both tense and aspect; passives and voice; nontonal; 33 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes.
A Scheduled Tribe. Language of Santhal tribals of Chota Nagpur Plateau (comprising the states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Odisha, Chhattisgarh). Hindu, traditional religion.