A language of India

Alternate Names
Har, Hor, Samtali, Sandal, Sangtal, Santal, Santali, Santhiali, Satar, Sentali, Sonthal
Har Rar

7,340,000 in India (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 7,620,280 (as L1: 7,619,300; as L2: 980).


Bihar state: Bhagalpur and Munger districts; Jharkhand state: Hazaribagh and Manbhum districts; Odisha state: Balasore district; West Bengal state: Bankura and Birbhum districts; Assam, Mizoram, and Tripura states.

Language Status

4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Jharkhand State (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII), amended 2003.


Karmali (Khole), Kamari-Santali, Lohari-Santali, Manjhi, Paharia. Reportedly similar to Ho [hoc], Mundari [unr], and Munda [unx].


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; no noun classes or genders; content q-word in situ; 1 prefix, up to 3 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking; verbal affixation marks person and number; non-ergative; both tense and aspect; passives and voice; nontonal; 33 consonant and 6 vowel phonemes.

Language Use

Also use Sadri [sck]. Used as L2 by Birhor [biy], Ho [hoc], Kharia [khr], Kharia Thar [ksy], Mahali [mjx].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 10%–30%. Literacy rate in L2: 25%–50%. Taught in primary schools. Literature. Periodicals. Radio. Videos. Dictionary. Grammar. Texts. Bible: 1914–2005.


Bengali (Bangla) script [Beng]. Devanagari script [Deva], used in Nepal. Latin script [Latn], used in Bangladesh. Ol Chiki (Ol Cemet’, Ol, Santali) script [Olck]. Oriya (Odia) script [Orya].

Other Comments

Language of Santhal tribals of Chota Nagpur Plateau (comprising the states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Odisha, Chhattisgarh). Hindu, traditional religion.

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