A language of China

Alternate Names
Ho Nte, Huo Nte

910 (1999 Mao Zongwu). 580 Luofu, 390 Lianhua (McConnell 1995). 200 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 709,000 (2010 census).


Guangdong province: Boluo, Haifeng, Huidong, and Zengcheng counties. More than 10 villages.

Language Maps
Language Status

7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: She.


Luofu (Eastern She), Lianhua (Western She). Major linguistic differences with Iu Mien [ium]. Reportedly most similar to Jiongnai Bunu [pnu]. Dialects inherently intelligible. Classification within Hmong-Mien is in dispute (McConnell 1995:1320).


SVO; modifiers precede noun heads; mainly monosyllabic roots, but mainly compound words; loans from Hakka and Cantonese Chinese; tonal, 8 tones.

Language Use

Most ethnic She use Hakka Chinese [hak] as L1 and other Chinese as well (Bradley 2007a). All domains. Adults only. Neutral attitudes. Also use Hakka Chinese [hak], Mandarin Chinese [cmn], Min Nan Chinese [nan].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L2: 88% in any language for She nationality (2000 census). Grammar.

Other Comments

Shehua refers to Hakka [hak] variety spoken by the She. Daoist.

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