A language of Philippines

Alternate Names
Bino-Bolinao, Binubolinao, Binubulinao, Bolinao Sambal, Bolinao Zambal, Bulinaw, Sambal Bolinao

56,200, all users. 51,200 (2007 census), decreasing. 5,000. 510 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 104,000.


Ilocos region: west Pangasinan province, Anda and Bolinao municipalities.

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Language Status

6b (Threatened).


VSO; verb affixation indicates relationships of constituents and directions; gender not marked. Initial content question word; no obligatory yes-no question marker; rhetorical or emotional question word, verb phrase medially; 14 unique consonants and 4 vowels in the non-borrowed words.

Language Use

Shifting to Filipino [fil]. All ages, especially in the islands. Positive attitudes. Also use English [eng], acquired in school. Also use Filipino [fil], acquired through intermarriage and community relations and used at home, school, and in the community. Used as L2 by Cebuano [ceb], Ilocano [ilo].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: Over 90%. Literacy rate in L2: Over 90% in Filipino [fil], 40% in English [eng]. Pilot project in one school. Taught as a course in some secondary schools. Literature. Dictionary. Texts. NT: 2012. Agency: Bolinao Historical Society.

Latin script [Latn].

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