56,200, all users. L1 users: 51,200 (2007 census), decreasing. L2 users: 5,000. 510 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 104,000.
Ilocos region: west Pangasinan province, Anda and Bolinao municipalities.
VSO; verb affixation indicates relationships of constituents and directions; gender not marked. Initial content question word; no obligatory yes-no question marker; rhetorical or emotional question word, verb phrase medially; 14 unique consonants and 4 vowels in the non-borrowed words.
Shifting to Filipino [fil]. All ages, especially in the islands. Positive attitudes. Also use English [eng], acquired in school. Also use Filipino [fil], acquired through intermarriage and community relations and used at home, school, and in the community. Used as L2 by Cebuano [ceb], Ilocano [ilo].
Latin script [Latn].