10,700,000 in Zimbabwe (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). 4,500,000 Karanga (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000), 1,700,000 Korekore (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000), 3,200,000 Zezuru (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000), 1,300,000 Shona. L2 users: 1,800,000 in Zimbabwe (Chebanne and Nthapelelang 2000). Total users in all countries: 12,563,100 (as L1: 10,763,100; as L2: 1,800,000).
Widespread. Mashonaland Central province.
3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language.
Karanga (Chikaranga), Zezuru (Bazezuru, Bazuzura, Chizezuru, Harava, Hera, Mazizuru, Shawasha, Vazezuru, Wazezuru), Korekore (Goba, Gova, Northern Shona, Shangwe), Hwesa. Subdialects: Karanga: Duma, Jena, Mhari (Mari), Ngova, Nyubi, Govera; Korekore: Budya, Gova, Tande, Tavara, Nyongwe, Pfunde, Shan Gwe; Zezuru: Shawasha, Gova, Mbire, Tsunga, Kachikwakwa, Harava, Nohwe, Njanja, Nobvu, Kwazwimba (Zimba); Shona: Toko, Hwesa. Rozvi (Rozwi, Ruzwi, Chirozwi) speak Karanga dialect. Ndau [ndc] and Manyika [mxc] are partially intelligible of Shona.
SVO; noun head initial; 13 noun classes; no articles; verb affixes mark person, number, object; passives; causatives; 31 consonants, 5 vowels, 2 diphthongs; tonal (2 tones: high, low).
Dominant African language understood by a considerable number. Primarily a written language apparently based on Karanga and Zezuru with lexical items also from Manyika and Korekore. Urban populations tend to speak school or standard Shona. Also use English [eng]. Used as L2 by Kalanga [kck], Nambya [nmq], Zimbabwe Sign Language [zib].
Traditional religion, Christian.