Murut, Timugon


A language of Malaysia

Alternate Names
Temogun, Timigan, Timigun, Timogon, Timogun, Tumugun, “Tenom Murut” (pej.)

Ethnic population: 9,000 (2004 S. Majius).


Sabah: Beaufort district, Bukau and lower Padas rivers; Tenom district, Padas river from Melalap to Batu-Batu.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened).


Kapagalan, Poros, Beaufort Murut (Binta’), Timugon, Sandiwar (Sandewar), Dabugus, Lower Murut, Murut Padas, Bukau (Bukow). Beaufort Murut may be a distinct language, though highly intelligible with Timugon (Spitzack 1984). Whether these two varieties are distinct languages requires further investigation.

Language Use

Some young people, all adults. Some children and adults; all elderly. Neutral attitudes. Many also use Sabah Malay [msi]. Some also use English [eng], Hakka Chinese [hak], Standard Malay [zsm]. A few also use Tahol Murut [mvv]. Used as L2 by Keningau Murut [kxi], Tahol Murut [mvv].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: Less than 40%. Literacy rate in L2: More than 50% in Standard Malay [zsm]. Literature. Radio. Dictionary. Bible: 2014. Agency: Kadazandusun Language Foundation (KLF), Murut Language Centre.


Latin script [Latn], developed in about 1984.

Other Comments

Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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