Tiwa, Southern


A language of United States


L1 users: 1,600 (Golla 2007), decreasing. 1,500 Isleta, 100 Sandia speakers (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 4,500 (Golla 2007). Including 4,000 Isleta and 500 Sandia (Golla 2007).


New Mexico: Isleta and Sandia pueblos, north and south of Albuquerque.

Language Status

6b (Threatened).


Sandia, Isleta (Isleta Pueblo).

Language Use

Vigorous in a few families. Diminishing vigor at Isleta except among older adults. Commerce on tribal land, traditional ceremonial life. Only middle-aged or elderly are fluent but some younger people use the language and at least a few children acquire it (Golla 2007). Positive attitudes. People are apprehensive about losing their culture if the language is not revived. Also use English [eng], with proficiency ranging from low to fluent.

Language Development
Attempt to reestablish use of Southern Tiwa at Sandia Pueblo and Ysleta del Sur, El Paso, Texas. Bible portions: 1981–1987.

Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Christian, traditional religion.

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