Tujia, Northern


A language of China

Alternate Names
Tuchia, Tudja, pi tsi kha

70,000 (Brassett and Brassett 2005). 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,350,000 (2010 census). Includes Southern Tujia [tjs].


Chongqing province: southeast; Guizhou province; Hubei province: southwest; Hunan province: Yanhe and Yingjiang counties. Wuling mountain range.

Language Maps
Language Status

7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Tujia.


Longshan, Baojing. Northern and Southern Tujia [tjs] are not mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 40% with Southern Tujia [tjs].


SOV; tonal, 4 tones; no voiced stops or affricates.

Language Use

Regularly used but increasingly the young prefer to speak Chinese and are encouraged by their parents. In most areas children acquire a passive knowledge only. No longer used in southeastern Sichuan, northeastern Guizhou and southwestern Hubei provinces. No longer used or moribund in northwestern Hunan and severely endangered in the remaining areas (Bradley 2007a). All domains. Adults only. Most also use Mandarin Chinese [cmn]. Written Chinese in use and used in schools. Also use Hmong Njua [hnj].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L2: 88% in Chinese (2000 census, Tujia nationality). Grammar.

Other Comments

Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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