L1 users: No known L1 speakers.
Maluku Utara province: Kota Ternate city on Ternate island.
Spanish [spa] relexification. Historical relationship with Chavacano and dialects, still spoken in the Philippines.
The Jakarta variety of creole Portuguese survived in Tugu until recent times (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Varieties also spoken in Larantuka, Flores; Adonara (Vure), Solor; as well as Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Maluku. Varieties of creole Portuguese were also spoken in Banda and Ambon.