Tolowa

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A language of United States

Alternate Names
Smith River
Population

No known L1 speakers (Golla 2007), but emerging L2 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,000 (2000 A. Yamamoto).

Location

California: Smith River Rancheria, near Crescent City.

Language Status

9 (Reawakening). Language of registered tribe: Big Lagoon Rancheria, Cher-Ae Heights Indian Community of the Trinidad Rancheria, Elk Valley Rancheria, Tolowa Dee-ni’ Nation.

Language Use

One fully fluent L2 speaker in his 40s but growing numbers of younger emerging speakers with limited competence (Golla 2007).

Language Development
All L2 speakers are literate. Dictionary. Some successful language revival efforts (Golla 2011).
Other Comments

Chasta Costa was a separate tribe in Oregon; now extinct.

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