A language of Bhutan

Alternate Names
Central Monpa, Menba, Monpa, Sangla, Sarchapkkha, Shachobiikha, Shachopkha, Sharchagpakha, Sharchhokpa, Sharchhop, Tsangla, Tshalingpa

80,600 in Bhutan (2013 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 98,800.


Mongar district: east; Pemagatshel district: east; Samdrup Jongkhar and Trashigang districts; Trashi-Yangtse district: south.

Language Maps
Language Status

4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in eastern and southeastern Bhutan.


None known. Standard variety in Tashigang. Tshangla is nearly identical to that of eastern Bhutan, except for the loss of initial voicing and tonogenesis in Tibet. Differs from Tawan Monba [twm] in phonology, vocabulary, and grammar, and Tawan Monba and Tshangla are not mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 40%–50% with Bumthangkha [kjz], 41%–48% with Dzongkha [dzo].


SOV; singular-dual-plural personal pronouns; case-marking (3 cases); tense and aspect; 31 consonants and 5 vowels; nontonal; evidentiality (mirativity).

Language Use

Also use Dzongkha [dzo]. Used as L2 by Khengkha [xkf].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 47% (2003 SIL). Literacy rate in L2: Below 1%. Radio. Grammar. Bible portions: 2000.


Tibetan script [Tibt], Uchen style, used in India.

Other Comments

Not the same as Tsanglo (Angami Naga) of Assam, India. May also be classified as North Assam, Monpa. Buddhist.

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