Tsum

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A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Tsumba, Tsumge
Population

L1 users: 4,790 (2000).

Location

Gandaki zone: north Gorkha district, Tsum valley, the region drained by the Shiar Khola; Chekampar (Chokong) is prestige village.

Language Maps
Language Status

6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Siyar.

Dialects

None known. 71%–78% intelligibility of Nubri [kte], 66% of Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy]; 60%–66% of Lhasa Tibetan [bod]; 22%–25% of Northern Ghale [ghh], 14%–22% of Southern Ghale [ghe], 23%–27% of Kuke [ght]; 6% of Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 14% of Gurung [gvr], 15% of Banspur Tamang. Divided into upper region, Yarba, and lower region, Ushug.

Typology

SOV.

Language Use

Vigorous. Home, friends. All ages. Positive attitudes. Some also use Nepali [npi], as language of education and with those who do not understand Tsum. Also use Central Tibetan [bod], in religious domain.

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: 10% or less. A few primary schools.
Writing

Unwritten [Qaax].

Other Comments

Buddhist.

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