Tiwa, Northern


A language of United States


1,070 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007), decreasing. 998 Taos, 66 Picuris speakers (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Picuris spoken by nearly all 230 members of the Picuris Pueblo. 800 Taos speakers out of 1,600 in the pueblo (Golla 2007). Ethnic population: 1,830 (Golla 2007).


New Mexico: north central.

Language Status

7 (Shifting). Language of registered tribe: Pueblo of Picuris, Pueblo of Taos.


Taos, Picuris. Taos and Picuris are not mutually intelligible (Golla 2007).

Language Use

Adults only. Older adults at Picuris. Also use English [eng].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 50%–75%. A rule of secrecy is adhered to by all members of the Taos Pueblo never to reveal anything to outsiders that is intrinsic to Taos culture. As a result, any language education and retention efforts are not publicly known (Golla 2007). Bible portions: 1976–1992.


Latin script [Latn].

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