Tombonuo

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A language of Malaysia

Alternate Names
“Lobou nu Tindal” (pej.), Lobu, “Pagan” (pej.), Paitan, Sungai, Sungei, Tambanua, Tambanuo, Tambanuva, Tambanwas, Tambenua, Tambunwas, Tangar nu Tombonuo, Tembenua, Tombonuva, Tombonuwo, Tumbunwha, Tunbumohas
Population

Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 SIL). 3,000 Lingkabau.

Location

Sabah: Beluran, Kota Marudu, and Pitas districts.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened).

Dialects

Lingkabau Sugut (Linkabau), Sugut (Sungoi).

Language Use

Mixed use: Home, Family, Work, Education, Religion. Few children, some adolescents, many adults, all elderly. Positive attitudes. A few also use Rungus [drg]. Also use Kadazan Dusun [dtp], Kimaragang [kqr], Sabah Malay [msi]. Used as L2 by Dumpas [dmv], Rungus [drg].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 65%. Literacy rate in L2: 80% in Standard Malay [zsm]. Poetry. New media. Dictionary. NT: 2002. Agency: Kota Kinabalu Tombonuo Association (K.KITA), Persatuan Bangsa Tombonuo Pitas, Persatuan Bangsa Tombonuo Beluran.
Writing

Latin script [Latn], developed in about 1984.