A language of Russian Federation

Alternate Names
Diba, Kizhi, Kök Mungak, Soyod, Soyon, Soyot, Tannu-Tuva, Tofa, Tokha, Tuba, Tuva, Tuvia, Tuvin, Tuvinian, Tyvan, Uriankhai, Uriankhai-Monchak, Uryankhai
тыва‎ (tyva), тыва дыл‎ (tyva dyl)

254,000 in Russian Federation (2010 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 268,000 (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 297,000.


Krasnoyarsk krai and Tyva republic; southern Siberia near Mongolia border.

Language Status

4 (Educational). Statutory provincial language in Tuva Republic (2001, Constitution of the Tuva Republic, Article 5(1)).


Central Tuvan, Western Tuvan, Northeastern Tuvan (Todzhin), Southeastern Tuvan, Tuba-Kizhi. Sharp dialect differences.

Language Use

One of most vital minority languages in Siberia due to geographic isolation. Home, work, government. Used by all. Neutral attitudes. Also use Russian [rus]. Also use Halh Mongolian [khk], near the border.

Language Development

Literacy rate in L2: 85% in Russian [rus] (2007 SIL). Taught in primary and secondary schools. Literature. Grammar. Bible: 2011.


Cyrillic script [Cyrl].

Other Comments

Until 1944 Tuva was an independent state. Buddhist, traditional religion.

Also spoken in:

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