Ugandan Sign LanguagePrint
L1 users: 160,000 (2008 WFD). Estimates vary, ranging from approximately 1% of the general population of approximately 37,000,000: 160,000–840,000 deaf (2008 WFD). 528,000–800,000 deaf (Lule and Wallin 2010). Over 700,000 deaf adults (2010 B. Oluoch).
Scattered, mainly in urban areas.
5 (Developing). Recognized language (1995, Constitution, Article XXIV(d)).
None known. Historical influence from British Sign Language [bfi], American Sign Language [ase] and Kenyan Sign Language [xki], but clearly distinct from all three. Influence from English [eng] in grammar, mouthing, initialization, fingerspelling (both one-handed and two-handed systems), especially among young, urban Deaf. Some mouthing from Luganda [lug] and Swahili [swa] (Lule and Wallin 2010).
One-handed and two-handed fingerspelling.
Schools for deaf children since 1959. 8 primary schools and 2 secondary for the deaf; mixture of bilingual education and Total Communication (2008 WFD). In classrooms, often use Signed English, especially by hearing teachers. Some schools are residential; education at preschool through vocational and university levels, but not available to all deaf children; many are in mainstream settings (Lule and Wallin 2010). Interpreters available for university, social, medical and religious services, courts, parliament, etc. (2008 WFD). Positive attitudes towards USL among Deaf; negative attitudes still common among hearing (Lule and Wallin 2010). All ages. Also use English [eng], with varying degrees of bilingualism, since it is the language of education. 40% are literate in it.
Sign Language classes for interpreters and others by Kyambogo University and Uganda National Association of the Deaf (2008 WFD, Lule and Wallin 2010). Deaf member of Parliament. 102 interpreters, 77 with formal qualifications, with some government funding. One-handed fingerspelling system is similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Two-handed system, based on British SL [bfi], may still be used, but less-commonly. (2008 WFD). Christian, Muslim.