Mundari

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A language of India

Alternate Names
Colh, Horo, Kolh, Mandari, Mondari, Munari
Population

L1 users: 1,110,000 (2001 census). 1,060,000 Mundari, 47,400 Bhumij. Total users in all countries: 1,120,280.

Location

Jharkhand state: Ranchi district, south and west; Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Tripura, and West Bengal states.

Language Status

5 (Developing).

Dialects

Hasada’, Latar, Naguri, Kera’, Bhumij (Bhumij Munda, Bhumij Thar, Sadar Bhumij). 75% intelligibility of Ho [hoc]. Lexical similarity: 70%–84% with the Bhumij dialect.

Language Use

Used as L2 by Birhor [biy], Mahali [mjx].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: 10%–30%. Literacy rate in L2: 50%–75%. Literature. Periodicals. Radio. Dictionary. Grammar. Texts. Bible: 1910–2002.
Writing

Bengali (Bangla) script [Beng]. Devanagari script [Deva], used in India. Latin script [Latn]. Oriya (Odia) script [Orya].

Other Comments

A Scheduled Tribe. There is Bhumij literature. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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