Urdu

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A language of Pakistan

Alternate Names
Bihari, Modern Standard Urdu
Autonym
اُردُو‎‎ (Urdū)
Population

109,100,000 in Pakistan, all users. L1 users: 15,100,000 (2015 World Factbook). L2 users: 94,000,000 (1999). Total users in all countries: 163,095,930 (as L1: 69,050,130; as L2: 94,045,800).

Location

Widespread.

Language Status

1 (National). Statutory national language (1973, Constitution, Article 251(1)).

Dialects

Intelligible with Hindi, but formal vocabulary borrowed from Arabic and Persian. Dakhini dialect of Urdu [urd] in India has fewer Persian and Arabic loans than Urdu. Rekhta is a form of Urdu used in poetry.

Typology

SOV; postposition; noun head final; gender (masculine/feminine); no articles; direct and oblique cases; verb affixes mark person, number, gender of subject; passives; tense and aspect; causatives; 30 consonants, 20 vowels, 2 diphthongs; non-tonal; stress on penultimate syllable.

Language Use

All domains. All ages.

Language Development
Taught in primary and secondary schools. Fully developed. Bible: 1843–1998.
Writing

Arabic script, Naskh variant [Arab]. Arabic script, Nastaliq variant [Aran], primary usage. Braille script [Brai].

Other Comments

Muslim.

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