Wasco-Wishram

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A language of United States

Alternate Names
Columbia Chinook, Upper Chinook, Wasco, Wishram
Population

No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speaker, Gladys Thompson, died in 2012 (2012 K. Foden-Vencil). Ethnic population: 750 (1977 SIL).

Location

Oregon: north central; Washington: south central.

Language Status

9 (Dormant). Language of registered tribe: Confederated Tribes of the Siletz Reservation, Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon.

Dialects

Clackamas (Clackama), Kiksht, Multnomah, Kathlamet (Cathlamet).

Language Use

Shifted to English [eng]. Kathlamet and Clackamas dialects were last spoken in the 1930s (Mithun 1999).

Language Development

Grammar. Texts. A revitalization project was started at Warm Springs in 1992, and it was still active as of 2012 (2012 R. Moore).

Writing

Unwritten [Qaax].

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