A language of India

Alternate Names
Adi Andhra, Kusavan

10,000 (2004 NLCI).


Kerala state: Kozhikode, Malappuram, and Wayanad districts, Ernakkulam, Kannur, Palakkad, and Trissur; all states in peninsular India.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened).


None known. Reportedly cannot understand Telugu [tel] on Wayanad District radio. Lexical similarity: 48% with Telugu [tel].

Language Use

Fairly vigorous in Wayanad District although Malayalam [mal] is used some in home and village. Some young people, all adults. Positive attitudes, especially in Wayanad District.

Language Development

Literacy rate in L2: Below 50% for older adults in Kerala.


Unwritten [Qaax].

Other Comments

Kumbaran are a subcaste of Chettiars (or Adi Andhra) whose caste occupation is pottery or any work with mud or clay. Adi Andhra is a Scheduled Caste. Kusavan caste also speaks Kumbaran. Hindu, traditional religion.

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