L1 users: 13,500 (2011 census). A few elderly monolinguals.
Sagarmatha zone: south Okhaldhunga district, Rikdum, Lukuvapani, Wamdyal (Ubu), Huku, Sikapu, Tarkomdada, Salle, Dhepti, Dhaircaur, Khayapu, Lorphe, Thulacaur, Moli, Vaksa, Leva, Sinju, Gairigau, Dhemdalu, Kopsepu, Phasku, and Serankhu (Wamdyal dialect); south Okhaldhunga district, Pipale, Bhadare, Hilepani, Thakle, Mandhare, Sokma Tar, Dundunma, Jakma, Jerun, Ricuva, and Lambole (Hilepane dialect); south Okhaldhunga district, Udayapur, Phedigau, Barasi, Ghiramdi, Simkaku, and Peku (Udayapur dialect); west Khotang district, Kurleghat, Majhkhani, Byanditar, Rupatar, Kharka, Cuvabot, Jhapa, Lurkhudada, Vaitar, Balui, Thumka, Pakauci, Goviar, Gurdum, Jayaram Gha, Bahuni Dada, Todke, Limlun, Damli, Vetagau, and Temtuku (Jhappali dialect); Sagarmatha zone, north Udaypur district; Janakpur zone, northeast Sindhuli district, Lekhani, Ghurmi, Salle, Sorun, Salleni, Pallo Salleni, Sindure, Majhkhani, Bhirpani, Kusumtar, and Jortighat (Hilepane dialect).
5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai.
SOV; postpositions; noun head final; no noun classes or genders; content q-word in situ; 1 prefix, up to 4 (word-internal) suffixes and 4 phrasal affixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking (and verbal marking for agent and patient); verbal affixation marks person and number; ergativity, but an expression of volitionality causes the intransitive subject to have ergative marking; both tense and aspect; no passives or voice; nontonal; 33 consonant and 9 vowel phonemes; ingressive laterals.
Devanagari script [Deva].
Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.