A language of Sudan

Alternate Names
Central Koma, Como, Gokwom, Hayahaya, Koma of Daga, Madiin
Tta Komo

10,000 in Sudan (1979 W. James). Total users in all countries: 11,000.


Blue Nile state: Kurmuk district, Ahmar, Tombak, and Yabus rivers area.

Language Status

6a (Vigorous).


Beilla, Chali. Dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 52% with Uduk [udu].


Tonal, 3 tones; 7 vowel system /i, ɪ, ɛ, a, ɔ, ʊ, u/ with ATR contrast in the high vowels; anticipatory +ATR harmony and progressive –ATR harmony (Otero 2015, to appear); AVO/OVA depending on discourse context but strictly SV; no case marking of core arguments; virtually no nominal morphology; nouns are generally transnumeral, core verbal morphology includes a three-way paradigm of deictic directional suffixes that code deictic direction of translational motion, associated motion and aspect when collocated with verb roots of distinct semantic profiles; bound pronominal suffixes distinguish number and gender obligatorily index S/A and can optionally index O/R/T on a finite verb; 3 genders (m, f, non-human) in the pronominal system; pluractional derivation via partial reduplication of the verb root; segmentally and tonally suppletive verb roots in number; serial verb constructions.

Language Use

All domains. Used by all. Positive attitudes. Used as L2 by Ganza [gza].

Language Development

Dictionary. Bible portions: 1960–1963.


Latin script [Latn], plans for future development in Ethiopia.

Other Comments

Called Aru in Uduk [udu].

Also spoken in:

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