8,000 in Nicaragua (Adelaar 2007). 8,540 (2005 census). Ethnic population: 9,760 (2005 census). Total users in all countries: 8,700.
Atlántico Norte and Jinotega departments: Bambana and Tungi along Waspuk river; Santo Tomás de Umbra on the upper Wawa; Panamahka dialect along Wanki river; Tuahka dialect: Wasakin area near Rosita.
2 (Provincial). Statutory language of provincial identity in northern, southern areas (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4).
Panamahka (Panamaca), Tuahka (Taguasca). Reportedly similar to Ulwa [ulw].
Latin script [Latn].