Yukaghir, Northern


A language of Russian Federation

Alternate Names
Jukagir, Northern Yukagir, Odul, Tundra, Tundra Yukaghir, Tundre, Wadul, Yukaghir, Yukagir

370 (2010 census). Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux]. Ethnic population: 1,600 (2010 census). Census includes Southern Yukaghir [yux].


Sakha (Yakutia) republic: lower Kolyma county, Andryushkino and Kolymskoye.

Language Status

8a (Moribund).


None known. Distinct from Southern Yukaghir (Kolyma) [yux].


SOV; postpositions; genitives, articles, adjectives, numerals, relatives before noun heads; question word not initial or final; 2 prefixes, 6 suffixes; word order focus preverbal, subjects and topics tend to be initial; affixes indicate case of noun phrases; person and number of subject indicated by obligatory verb phrases; split-intransitivity: intransitive subjects encoded as transitive when nonfocus; focus marked the same way for intransitive subjects and direct objects, and only those, otherwise accusative; resultative; reflexive; reciprocal; causative; comparative; CV, CVCCVV; nontonal.

Language Use

In Andryushkino there may be a few younger speakers (Salminen 2007). Home. Older adults only. Mixed attitudes, from neutral to mildly positive. No sense of shared ethnic identity between the two Yukaghir varieties, Southern Yukaghir [yux] and Northern Yukaghir [ykg]. Also use Chukchi [ckt], Russian [rus], Yakut [sah]. Also use Even [eve], especially reindeer herdsmen and some others. Used as L2 by Chukchi [ckt].

Language Development

Taught in primary schools through 4th grade in Andriushkino settlement; as an elective through 8th grade in Nelemnoye. Dictionary. Grammar.


Cyrillic script [Cyrl].

Other Comments

In 19th century their territory shrank due to merging clans, military clashes, assimilation with the Even [eve], and later, collectivization. From 1950s–1980s the state sent children to boarding school. Christian, traditional religion.

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