A language of Brazil

Alternate Names
Coastal Tupian, Geral, Língua Geral, Modern Tupí, Nheengatu, Nyengato, Nyengatú, Waengatu, Yeral, Ñeegatú

10,300 in Brazil (2005 FOIRN). Total users in all countries: 18,300.


Amazonas state: Içana, Lower Vaupés, and Negro river areas.

Language Status

7 (Shifting).


None known. Based on Tupinambá, developed by Portuguese during 17th and 18th centuries as lingua franca.

Language Use

In the Vaupés area it is being replaced by Tukano [tuo] (Crevels 2007). Elderly only (in Vaupés area). All also use Tucano [tuo]. Used as L2 by Baniwa [bwi], Guarequena [gae], Siriano [sri].

Language Development

NT: 1973.


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Language of the Bare tribe, with several ethnic groups identifying as Bare and speaking Nhengatu.

Also spoken in:

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