A language of United States

Alternate Names
Pai, Upland Yuman, Upper Colorado River Yuman

690 (2015 census). 145 Havasupai, 300 Walapai, 245 Yavapai (2015 census). Ethnic population: 3,860 (Ichihashi-Nakayama et al 2007). Including 570 Havasupai, 1,870 Walapai, 1,420 Yavapai (Ichihashi-Nakayama 2004).


Arizona: central and northwest. Walapai dialect: Grand Canyon south rim; Havasupai dialect: Grand Canyon bottom.

Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation, Havasupai Tribe of the Havasupai Reservation, Hualapai Indian Tribe of the Hualapai Indian Reservation, Yavapai-Apache Nation of the Camp Verde Indian Reservation, Yavapai-Prescott Indian Tribe.


Havasupai, Walapai (Hualapai, Hualpai, Hwalbáy), Yavapai. 78%–98% intelligibility among dialects. Lexical similarity: 91%–95% among dialects.

Language Use

Some young people, all adults. All ages for Walapai, Havasupai, middle-aged and older for Yavapai (Golla 2007). Also use English [eng].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L1: 1%–5%. Literacy rate in L2: 75%–100%. Dictionary. Grammar. Texts. Bible portions: 1980. Bilingual education programs in Walapai and Havasupai. Yavapai taught in reservation school in Prescott (Golla 2007).


Latin script [Latn].

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