100,000 in China (Wang Mingfu and Johnson 2008). Very few monolinguals, though it is L1 learned by children in most Dai Zhuang villages. Population total all countries: 100,200. Ethnic population: 120,000.
Southeast Yunnan Province, Wenshan Zhuang and Miao autonomous prefectures, Wenshan county, Matang, Dehou, Laohuilong, Panzhihua, and Kaihua townships; Yanshan county, Pingyuan township; Guangnan county, Zhulin township; Maguan and Malipo (western edge) counties. Also in Viet Nam.
Central Wenshan (Ping Tou Tu), Guangnan (Pian Tou Tu), Maguan-Malipo (Jian Tou Tu), Western Yanshan-Northern Wenshan (Da Tou Tu). Most similar language is Nong Zhuang [zhn], but not mutually intelligible of Nong Zhuang, Min Zhuang [zgm] or Yang Zhuang [zyg] (2010 E. Johnson). Lexical similarity: 63%–70% among Nong, Yang [zhn], Yongnan [zyn], Zuojiang [zzj], and Dai [zhd]; 54% with Yongbei Zhuang [zyb] (2011 E. Johnson).
SVO; voiced oral stop onsets, all final oral stops have been lost except for glottal stops in some locations; 5–6 tones, depending on dialect
Vigorous in most areas except Wenshan Municipality. Home, village, religious and traditional ceremonies. All ages in rural areas where L1 is dominant, but only the elders in other areas. Positive attitudes. Preserving traditional artforms through video, books, etc.. Almost all bilingual in local southwestern Mandarin [cmn]; some also use Nong Zhuang [zhn].
Officially classified within Zhuang nationality. Traditional religion, Daoist, Buddhist.