A language of United States

Alternate Names
Ashiwi, Shiwi, Zuñi

9,620 (2015 census), increasing. Few, if any, monolinguals (2000).


New Mexico: south McKinley County Reservation, south of Gallup.

Language Status

6b (Threatened). Language of registered tribe: Zuni Tribe of the Zuni Reservation.

Language Use

Some children raised to speak the language (1998). Slowly shifting to English [eng] (Golla 2007). Home, traditional tribal council meetings, all religious ceremonies, and occasionally in religious services. Some young people, all adults. Positive attitudes. All also use English [eng].

Language Development

Literacy rate in L2: 75%–100%. Schools in English [eng]. Some study of oral and written Zuni in primary school. Radio. Videos. Dictionary. Grammar. Bible portions: 1941–2007. The Zuni Tribe has collaborated with the public school district in developing a literacy program to help preserve the written language (Golla 2007).


Latin script [Latn].

Other Comments

Traditional religion.

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